Insert coin: Hacking arcades for fun

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Since we were children we wanted to go to the arcade and play for hours and hours for free. How about we do it now? In this talk I’m gonna show you some vulnerabilities that I discovered in the cashless system of one of the biggest companies in the world, with over 2,300 installations across 70 countries. We will talk about api security, access control and nfc among other things.

The talk is divided into 10(+1) stages. Starting at Stage 0, I will relate the origin of the idea during H2HC Brazil in 2023. Initially, the proposal was an arcade in Brazil with a debit card system.

In Stage 1, I will present the company, the NFC card, an application to charge money and check our data, but without exploitable vulnerabilities due to the use of middleware.

In the next stage, the focus shifts to the company responsible for the debit card system. This Argentine company dominates the market, with more than 2300 installations in 70 countries, ranging from arcades to a famous roller coaster in Las Vegas. During the investigation, the /api endpoint on the server was identified, filtering out endpoints that did not return 404 or 200. DNS enumeration and the use of Shodan revealed an outdated info.php, as well as other servers with open ports and versions with vulnerabilities. Documentation was also found in /api/v2 without the necessary credentials.

In Stage 3, the IDOR and Broken Authentication vulnerabilities will be explained. Then I will present endpoints in the system that allow us to exploit these vulnerabilities and obtain card information and personal customer data.

Then, it will be revealed that the company provides a mobile application. When decompiling some applications, keys and API endpoints were discovered. All APKs were similar, differing only in keys and endpoints.

In Stage 5, we will explain the Account Takeover attack and how to execute it on the system via API.

In the next scenario, a server found in Shodan: The online event booking system. Confidential information was found here, such as all Argentinean invoices, logs and extra company information, obtained by script written by me.

A reservation management portal was also identified with a Broken Access Control vulnerability, allowing us to view and modify all reservations, including modifying prices. It is important to note that all of these vulnerabilities affect ALL of the company’s customers.

As we near the end, other servers will be quickly highlighted, such as the company’s public Zendesk, allowing user creation and access to useful information. A U.S. case will be presented where a go-karting facility uses this system, allowing access to all monitors. Other examples include an amusement park company in Spain providing links to their park management consoles, and similar findings in Chile, Ecuador and Phoenix.

The last scenario will explain the NFC system, focusing on card reading and manipulation due to lack of security. Some attacks, such as changing the ID and referencing another card, will be shown, including a real scenario in an arcade.

The idea of the talk is to demonstrate that even in 2024 there are significant systems with many users and with “basic” vulnerabilities known for years. Also I would like to encourage new generations to do ethical hacking and help generate a good relationship between hackers and companies. Computer security education and training are crucial to prevent attacks and protect our digital assets.

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